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專業研發生物能源專用燃燒設備和生物燃料

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微型顆粒燃料熱電聯產:未來智能電網分布式發電解決方案

木屑顆粒有兩個主要市場:工業木屑顆粒市場和優質供暖木屑顆粒市場。工業木屑顆粒是指發電站煤炭的替代品,而供暖木屑顆粒是用於顆粒爐子、顆粒鍋爐和顆粒燃燒機的燃料。

There are two major markets for wood pellets: the industrial wood pellet markets in which the pellets substitute for coal in large utility power generation stations, and the premium heating pellet markets in which wood pellets are used to fuel pellet stoves, pellet boilers, and pellet furnaces .

本白皮書是關於未來的供暖顆粒市場。目前,優質供暖顆粒僅用於爐子、鍋爐或燃燒機產生熱量。但是OkoFEN公司在上奧地利開發的一種新產品,將大大改變供暖顆粒,有助於木屑顆粒整體市場。在美國,這些係統將在緬因州組裝,並以緬因州能源係統“MESys”品牌銷售。

This white paper is about the future of the pellet heating markets. Currently, premium heating pellets only produce heat in stoves, boilers, or furnaces. But a new product, developed by OkoFENin Upper Austria is poised to dramatically change how heating pellets contribute to the overall market for wood pellets. In the United States the systems will be assembled in Maine and sold under the Maine Energy Systems“MESys” brand.

 

新產品是一種小型熱電聯產(CHP)係統,使用優質木屑顆粒。下麵更詳細描述這種新產品,如何跨越供暖顆粒和工業顆粒之間的界限。如下所述,利用可再生低碳的木屑顆粒在微觀層麵發電可以成為分布式智能電網架構的一部分,補充小規模太陽能、小型蓄電池以及電動車輛使用的增長 。

The new product is a small combined heat and power (CHP) system that runs on premium wood pellets. This new product, described in more detail below, crosses the boundary between heating pellets and industrial pellets. As we describe below, generating electricity at the micro level with renewable low carbon wood pellets can be part of a distributed power smart grid architecture that can complement small-scale solar, small-scale battery storage, and the growth in the use of electric vehicles.

 

工業及優質木屑顆粒市場

Industrial and Premium Pellet Markets

 

全球木屑顆粒市場每年約2800萬噸。如下圖所示,2016年全球需求平均分配在供暖市場和工業市場之間。終用戶是大型粉煤發電站的工業市場,將在2017年超過供暖市場。從2017年起,根據目前的預測,工業顆粒行業將主導全球木屑顆粒需求。

The total global market for wood pellets is about 28 million metric tonnes per year. As the chart below shows, in 2016 global demand was about evenly split between the heating markets and the industrial markets. The industrial markets, whose end users are large pulverized coal power stations, will overtake the heating markets in 2017. From 2017 on, under current forecasts, the industrial pellet sector will dominate global demand for wood pellets.

2025年,優質供暖顆粒需求預計約為2450萬噸。但是,如果以下願景成為現實,需求可能會更高。

Premium pellet demand is forecast to be about 24.5 million metric tonnes in 2025. However, demand could be much higher if the vision set forth below becomes reality.

 

新型熱電聯產係統

The New Combined Heat and Power System

 

新的微型CHP係統是建立在可靠高效的OkoFEN顆粒鍋爐的基礎之上。在17個國安裝了超過6萬台OkoFEN顆粒鍋爐。在美國,MESys在緬因州生產的成千上萬個係統,服務於供暖家庭、企業、市政建築、學校和其他建築物。這些全自動顆粒鍋爐已經證明了它們的可靠性和效率。

The new micro-CHP system is built upon the foundation of the reliable and highly efficient OkoFEN pellet boilers. There are more than 60,000 OkoFEN pellet boilers installed in 17 countries. In the US, thousands of systems produced in Maine by MESys are heating homes, businesses, municipal buildings, schools, and other buildings. These fully automatic pellet boilers have proven their reliability and efficiency.

現在,除了熱量,微型顆粒燃料CHP鍋爐也發電。經過幾年的研發和現場測試,微型熱電聯產係統正在歐洲部署,並在美國全麵批準銷售。

Now, in addition to heat, the pellet-fueled micro-CHP boiler also generates electricity. After several years of R&D and field testing, the micro-CHP systems are being deployed in Europe and are several months from full approval for sale in the US.

 

CHP鍋爐產生高達60千瓦的熱量(約205,000BTU /時)和高達5千瓦的電力。 所以,當建築物用顆粒供暖時,熱電聯產機組也在發電。

The CHP boiler produces up to 60 kilowatts of heat (about 205,000 BTU/hour) and up to 5 kilowatts of electricity. So, while the building is being heated by pellets, the CHP unit is also generating electricity.

 

下圖顯示了緬因州能源係統產品微型熱電聯產機組在裝配間,正在進行美國出售審批。

The photo below shows the micro-CHP unit in the Maine Energy Systems product assembly building where it is being tested for US approval for sale.

由於測試需要,拆除了一個部件。前台是一個內部顆粒儲存罐,通過氣動輸送係統自動填充,通過白色軟管連接到散裝顆粒燃料儲存箱。顆粒儲存罐後麵是定製設計的斯特林發動機和發電機組。整個係統大約占40英寸乘36英寸(100厘米x 90厘米)的空間。照片的左下方是自動收集和壓縮灰分的小型可移動垃圾箱。該箱每年需要排空4-8次,當箱子快滿的時候,係統會通過電子郵件和文本通知所有者。下圖是斯特林發動機和發電機(Stirling engine and generator)。

Part of the external covering is removed for access to the internal components during testing. In the foreground is the internal pellet storage tank that is refilled automatically by a pneumatic conveyance system connected by the white hoses to a bulk pellet fuel storage bin. The domed top of the custom designed Sterling engine and generating unit can be seen behind and above the pellet storage tank. The entire system sits on a space that is about 40 inches by 36 inches (100cm x 90cm). In the bottom-left of the photo is the small removable bin that automatically collects and compacts the ash. That bin needs emptying 4-8 times per year for the typical installation and the system alerts the owner via email and text when the bin is nearly full. The image below shows the Stirling engine and generator.

整個微型CHP裝置的平均效率為85%。 這意味著在好配置下完全輸出,CHP係統可以產生約205,000BTU /小時(60kW熱力)和5kW電力。該係統有效地從20kW(約68,000BTU /時)的熱量輸出到60kw的全輸出。係統根據熱量需求調節其輸出。電力輸出與熱量輸出成正比。

The entire micro-CHP unit has an average efficiency of 85%. That means that at full output in an optimal configuration the CHP system can produce about 205,000 BTU/hour (60 kilowatts heat) and 5 kilowatts of electricity. The system operates efficiently from about 20 kW (about 68,000 BTU/hour) of heat output to full output at 60 kw. The system modulates its output to follow the heating demand. Electricity output is proportional to heat output.

 

60 kW的熱量輸出超過了大多數中小型家庭需求。在未來幾個月,將會提供更適合中小型家庭的。但是,對於大戶家庭、許多企業、公寓樓、小學校、診所、圖書館和市政大樓等,這個機組將能夠滿足熱力需求,同時產生5kW的電力。在具有足夠熱量需求的一些應用中,可以將兩個或更多個機組放置在獨立的能量艙中。

60 kW’s of heat output is more than is needed by most small and medium sized homes. In the coming months, a smaller version better suited for small to medium sized homes will be offered. But for large homes, many businesses, apartment buildings, small schools, clinics, libraries, municipal buildings, etc., this unit will match well with the heat demands while generating up to 5 kilowatts of power. In some applications with sufficient heat demand, two or more of the units can be placed in to a self-contained energy cabin.

 

小型顆粒燃料熱電聯產前景 

Putting the Value of Small-Scale Pellet-fueled CHP in Perspective

 

為了說明產生熱能和電力的好處,FutureMetrics已經生成了一個儀表板,顯示了使用顆粒燃料熱電聯產產生的電量對電動汽車(EV)充電的成本。

To illustrate the benefits of producing both heat and power and to use an example that has metrics that are easy to understand, FutureMetrics has produced a dashboard that shows the cost to charge an electric vehicle (EV) using the electricity produced by the pellet-fueled micro-CHP system.

儀表板計算通過CHP係統生產的電力,為當前可用的12台電動汽車中的任何一輛充電的成本。用戶可以更改許多輸入。輸入和輸出可以在美版(使用英製單位和美元)和歐洲版本(使用公製單位和歐元)之間切換。儀表板將EV與汽油或柴油車的每英裏或公裏的“燃料”成本進行比較。用戶還可以將EV充電的每千瓦時的成本與微型熱電聯產對比,並與電力公司的電力進行比較。為了看到當加熱需求小於至大輸出時,較小的機組或當前機組的情況,用戶可以將“熱輸出”控製滑動到較低值。

The dashboard calculates the cost to charge any one of 12 currently available electric cars from the power produced by the CHP system. The user can change many of the inputs. The inputs and outputs can be switched between a US version (using imperial units and dollars) and a European version (using metric units and Euros). The dashboard compares the “fuel” cost per mile or kilometer of the EV versus a gasoline or diesel car. The user can also compare the cost per kWh of charging the EV with the microCHP and with electricity from the utility. To see what a smaller unit would produce or what the current unit will produce when the heating demand is less than the maximum output, the user can slide the “heat output” control to lower values.

 

使用儀表板的默認輸入,並將汽油車與BMW i3 EV進行對比,在美國,駕駛相同距離,燃油車比微型CHP充電的EV燃料成本高5.45倍。在歐洲,由於燃料成本較高,每公裏使用柴油比使用顆粒CHP係統的電力要貴13倍。

A screenshot of the dashboard is on the next page. With the default inputs for the dashboard and comparing a gasoline fueled car with the BMW i3 EV, it is 5.45 times costlier in the US to drive the same distance in a combustion engine car running on gas than it is with the EV charged by the micro-CHP. Or to put in another way, gas would have to cost about $0.40/gallon for the two costs per mile to be equivalent. In Europe, given the higher cost of fuel, it is 13 times costlier to use diesel fuel per kilometer traveled than to use the electricity from the pellet CHP system.

 

小規模顆粒燃料CHP有可能成為未來分布式智能電網的主要部分。

Small-scale pellet-fueled CHP has the potential to become a major part of the distributed generation smart grid of the future.

 

此外,通過提供由可再生顆粒燃料生產的低碳熱能和電力,來彌補優質供暖顆粒行業和電力行業之間的差距,從而擴大優質顆粒市場。

Furthermore, bridging the gap between the premium heating pellet sector and the power sector by providing low carbon heat and power produced from renewable pellet fuel provides a pathway to an invigorated and larger premium pellet market.